A Science News Post (brought to my attention earlier in the summer by @elizabethjrowe) presents research trends in food science: the pairing of retronasal olfaction and taste reception in studying flavour and the knowledge pairing of culinary experts and scientists within a relatively new journal Flavour. I am glad that food sensation (for lack of a better word to describe the complex process of perception, taste, smell, hedonic value, and preference) is getting increasing amounts of attention! From an anthropological perspective, however, the evolutionary and cultural underpinnings of these studies is still missing from the dialogue–something I hope to rectify in the coming years!
The article leans towards the idea that repetition is the driver of food preference–and it starts in the womb. Support for this idea is presented by referencing the study on babies whose mothers ate anise and garlic during pregnancy (and therefore were not averse to the odors post-natally). I assume the reference is to Schaal et al. 2000. That paper was great and is a start to exploring cross-cultural differences in the interaction between odor perception and food preference–but there also might be variation in olfactory receptors within the sample from the Alsace region (where anise is a common food additive but the population history of which is complex).
A taste and smell scientist is quoted as supporting the idea of repetition shaping diet: “What makes lasagna loved is that the odors have been paired to a source of calories.” Odors stimulate appetite but arguing for a causative relationship among odors, loving a food, and its caloric value is premature. We have so much yet to learn about the genetic architecture of individual and population odor profiles, which ligands bind to which receptors, odor processing, perception, and consciousness let along variation among all these things. All these known unknowns make olfaction a great place to work (and the unknown unknowns exciting things to be discovered)!